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Due to his differences with the Hasidic leadership of the Agudat Yisrael in , he allied with Rabbi Ovadia Yosef , who had founded the Shas party.

Later, in , Shach sharply criticized Ovadia Yosef, and said that, " Sepharadim are not yet ready for leadership positions", [1] and subsequently founded the Degel HaTorah political party representing Lithuanian non-Hasidic Ashkenazi Jews in the Israeli Knesset.

The Shach family had been merchants for generations, but Batsheva's family, the Levitans, were religious scholars who served various Lithuanian communities.

Elazar was an illui child prodigy. Shach initially returned to his family, but then began traveling across Lithuania from town to town, sleeping and eating wherever he could, while continuing to study Torah.

In , following the advice of Rabbi Yechezkel Bernstein author of Divrei Yechezkel , Shach traveled to Slutsk to study at the yeshiva there.

It was in Slutsk that he met Rabbi Isser Zalman Meltzer , and this was the beginning of a close life-long relationship between the two.

Shach also met Rabbi Yosef Yozel Horwitz head of the Novardok yeshiva , who had come to visit the yeshiva in order to introduce its students to the study of mussar see Musar movement.

Around this time, he also met for the first time Rabbi Moshe Feinstein , as Feinstein would often visit Meltzer at his house in Slutsk.

In , as a result of regional political changes, the Slutsk yeshiva split up. Rabbi Isser Zalman Meltzer stayed in the city of Slutsk, while Meltzer's son-in-law, Rabbi Aharon Kotler , took his students and started a yeshiva in the town of Kletsk.

Shach joined Kotler in Kletsk, and subsequently was appointed by Kotler as a maggid shiur "lecturer [in Talmud ]" in the yeshiva.

In , Shach married Meltzer's niece, Guttel Gilmovski. After the wedding, Shach and his wife moved to Mir, Belarus , the residence of his father-in-law.

After spending some time in the city of Mir, Shach moved back to Kletsk to join the yeshiva again. In , his wife's uncle, Rabbi Meltzer, moved to Israel, and it was at this point that Shach became significantly more involved in the daily running of the yeshiva.

It was around this time that Rabbi Yechezkel Levenstein joined the yeshiva to become its mashgiach ruchani "spiritual guide" , and thus began a life-long relationship of mutual respect between Shach and Levenstein.

After delivering a discourse at the Chachmei Lublin Yeshiva, Shach traveled to Vilna to consult with Grodzinski about the wisdom of taking on the new position, and upon hearing the various aspects of the question, Grodzinski advised Shach to turn down the offer.

In , Shach was appointed rosh yeshiva of the Novardok yeshiva. After approximately two years, Shach left the yeshiva, because, in his own words, "this is not the place for me for many reasons".

Shortly before the start of World War II and the Holocaust , several yeshivas began considering evacuating their rabbis, students, and families.

Aharon Kotler escaped to the United States , traveling across Siberia and arriving in the United States during the war. Later that year, both Shach's mother and his eldest daughter fell ill, and died.

In early , the Shach family decided to leave Lithuania. Shach would later serve as the Rosh Yeshiva there as well. His uncle helped him and his family get immigration certificates, and took them in after they arrived at his doorstep in a destitute condition.

Shach first discussed the proposal with Rabbi Yitzchok Zev Soloveitchik , and was encouraged by the latter to take the position.

At this yeshiva, Shach delivered a lecture on the Talmud every Tuesday, and also occasionally gave other classes to the student body of the yeshiva.

Under his aegis, the phenomenon of Haredi men studying the Talmud in yeshivas and kollels full-time gained popularity. Although this type of set-up was unprecedented in Jewish history, [11] it became the norm in some Haredi communities in Israel and the United States, with some financial backing and donations from Haredi communities, as well as subsidies to young families with many children from the Israeli government.

Shach is also quoted as saying that although the yeshivas are the heart of the Jewish people, it is the ba'alei teshuvah who will be the one's to bring Mashiach.

Shach taught that events like the Holocaust occurred because the sins of the Jewish people accumulated, and they needed to be punished in order to rectify them.

He said that, "God kept count of each and every sin, in a running count over hundreds of years, until the count amounted to six million Jews, and that is how the Holocaust occurred.

So must a Jew believe, and if a Jew does not completely believe this, he is a heretic , and if we do not accept this as a punishment, then it is as if we don't believe in The Holy One, Blessed be He Shach held that any secular education, at any level whatsoever, including high-school, was absolutely forbidden by the Torah.

He wrote that any secular studies were banned by the sages of the Talmud, and that in particular the study of psychology and history is pure heresy.

He also wrote that learning a trade before it became an immediate need is forbidden. When Shach was asked about opening a yeshiva exclusively for gifted boys, he said that it is impossible to know beforehand who will grow in Torah knowledge, and who will not, and that all boys should therefore be given equal opportunities.

For Shach, battling secularism and Zionism was not enough. During the years of his leadership, he also waged bitter wars against anybody he suspected of deviation from the classical Haredi path.

He felt that a vote not cast for the right party or candidate was effectively a vote for the wrong party and candidate. This theme is consistent in his writings from the time that the State of Israel was established.

Shas ran for the 11th Knesset in , and Shach called upon his " Lithuanian " followers to vote for it in the polls, a move that many saw as key political and religious move in Shach's split with the Hasidic-controlled Agudat Yisrael.

While initially, Shas was largely under the aegis of Shach, Ovadia Yosef gradually exerted control over the party, culminating in Shas' decision to support the Labor party in the 13th Knesset in On the eve of the November election , Shach officially broke away from Agudat Israel in protest at Hamodia publishing, as paid advertisements, a series of articles based on the teachings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson.

Shach criticized Schneerson for his presumed messianic aspirations. Shach wanted the Aguda party to oppose Lubavitch; however, all but one Belz of the Hasidic groups within the party refused to back him.

In the end, Agudat Yisrael secured nearly three times the amount of votes it had in , and increased its Knesset representation from two seats to five, while Degel HaTorah only picked up two seats.

In a speech delivered prior to the elections, Shach said that Sephardim were still not fit for leadership, [21] and aroused great anger among Sephardi voters.

Following the elections, Shach instructed Shas not to join the government, while Ovadia Yosef instructed them to join - this precipitated an open rift between the parties.

Shach then declared that Shas had removed itself from the Jewish community when it joined the wicked Around , Shach's political activity diminished, following deterioration in his health, before later ceasing altogether.

Shach was deeply opposed to Zionism , both secular and religious. He was fiercely dismissive of secular Israelis and their culture.

For example, during a speech, he lambasted secular kibbutzniks as "breeders of rabbits and pigs" who did not "know what Yom Kippur is".

In the same speech, he said that the Labor Party had cut themselves off from their Jewish past and wished to "seek a new Torah".

Labor Party politician Yossi Beilin said Shach's speech had set back relations between religious and secular Israelis by decades.

In , four years after the Labor Party supported a liberalized abortion law , Shach refused to meet with Shimon Peres , since he would not even speak with a "murderer of fetuses".

In Haaretz , Shahar Ilan described him as "an ideologue" and "a zealot who repeatedly led his followers into ideological battles".

Shach never seemed concerned over the discord his harsh statements might cause, saying that, "There is no need to worry about machlokes [dispute], because if it is done for the sake of Heaven, in the end, it will endure It is no feat to be in agreement with everybody!

Shach was also critical of democracy , once referring to it as a "cancer", adding that, "Only the sacred Torah is the true democracy.

In May , following talk of a political compromise which would allow Haredim to perform national service by guarding holy places, Shach told his followers in a public statement that it is forbidden to serve in the army, and that "it is necessary to die for this".

Shach supported the withdrawal from land under Israeli control, basing it upon the Halakhic principle of Pikuach Nefesh "[the] saving [of a] life" , in which the preservation of lives takes precedence over nearly all other obligations in the Torah, including those pertaining to the sanctity of land, [33] though Shach's position was later questioned by Rabbi Shmuel Tuvia Stern, who wondered why Shach hadn't provided halachic references supporting his opinion.

Shach's often said that for true peace, it was "permitted and necessary to compromise on even half of the Land of Israel".

When Rabbi Yitzchak Hutner was asked to support this position, he refused, instead stating that, "agreement to other-than-biblical borders was tantamount to denial of the entire Torah".

Shach launched a number of public attacks against the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson , from the s through Schneerson's death in He accused Schneerson's followers of false Messianism , and Schneerson of fomenting a cult of crypto-messianism around himself.

When some of Schneerson's followers proclaimed him the Messiah, Shach called for a complete boycott of Chabad, its institutions and projects by its constituents.

Pointing to a statement by Schneerson that a rebbe is "the Essence and Being [of God] clothed a body", Shach described this as nothing short of idolatry.

His followers refused to eat meat slaughtered by Lubavitch shochetim , or to recognize Chabad Hasidim as adherents of authentic Judaism.

Despite this, Shach explained that he did not hold personal animosity toward Schneerson. And what say you to the game at chestes?

It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick. But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.

Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency. Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.

Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess' , written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c.

This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.

During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:.

The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.

By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today.

Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.

Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ".

Rowling's Harry Potter plays. The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion.

The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. Stating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money.

It causes enmity and hatred between people. Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions. The creator is known as a chess composer.

Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.

It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn.

The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:. Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses.

FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , [89] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.

Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.

Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title.

As of August , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. Top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, Ukraine, and Germany, with , 78, and The country with most grandmasters per capita is Iceland, with 11 GMs and 13 IMs among the population of , International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.

National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.

Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.

Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.

The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in , and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in Chess has a very extensive literature.

In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.

The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.

The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 , [] [] with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.

Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the knight's tour and the eight queens puzzle. One of the most important mathematical challenges of chess is the development of algorithms that can play chess.

Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.

The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.

In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.

Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.

In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.

The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.

De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.

Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.

When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall.

More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.

The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.

Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess.

For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.

Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.

Although the link between performance in chess and general intelligence is often assumed, researchers have largely failed to confirm its existence.

However, performance in chess also relies substantially on one's experience playing the game, and the role of experience may overwhelm the role of intelligence.

Chess experts are estimated to have in excess of 10, and possibly as many as , position patterns stored in their memory; long training is necessary to acquire that amount of data.

A study of young chess players in the United Kingdom found that strong players tended to have above-average IQ scores, but, within that group, the correlation between chess skill and IQ was moderately negative, meaning that smarter children tended to achieve a lower level of chess skill.

This result was explained by a negative correlation between intelligence and practice in the elite subsample, and by practice having a higher influence on chess skill.

There are more than two thousand published chess variants, [] most of them of relatively recent origin, [] including:.

Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include David Pritchard 's encyclopedias, [] the website The Chess Variant Pages created by Hans Bodlaender with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from George Jellis to the British Chess Variants Society.

In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.

A two-player strategy board game. Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: Initial position, first row: Moves of the king.

Moves of a rook. Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen. Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. The black king is in check by the rook. White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops.

Black is not in check and has no legal move. The result is stalemate. The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs. Square names in algebraic chess notation.

After sacrificing a piece to expose Black's king, Botvinnik played Chess in the arts. A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Chess libraries , List of chess books , and List of chess periodicals.

List of chess variants. Chess portal Strategy games portal. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today.

The spelling of ajedrez changed after Spanish lost the "sh" sound. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 October Consejo Superior de Deportes.

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In , Susan Polgar stated that Schmid "has over 20, chess books". Archived from the original on 10 February Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam states that Schmid "boasts to have amassed 50, chess books.

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Philosophical Magazine , Ser. Available online at " computerhistory. Archived from the original PDF on 15 March Retrieved 30 November The Week in Chess.

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For competitions starting before 1 July ". Archived from the original on 23 August Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 20 April A; Joel David Hamkins New Rules for Classic Games.

The form of chess most people know—which is sometimes referred to as Western chess, orthodox chess, or orthochess—is itself just one of many that have been played throughout history.

University of Pennsylvania Press. Bird, Henry Edward [First published ]. The Mammoth Book of Chess. A Short History of Chess. Thought and Choice in Chess English ed.

Perception and Memory in Chess: Heuristics of the Professional Eye. Estes, Rebecca; Robinson, Dindy World Cultures Through Art Activities.

New Ideas in Chess. Pitman Dover edition. Franklin, Benjamin []. A Benjamin Franklin Reader. The Psychology of Board Games. Better Chess for Average Players.

In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.

The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.

De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.

Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.

When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall. More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.

The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research. Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess.

For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.

Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.

Although the link between performance in chess and general intelligence is often assumed, researchers have largely failed to confirm its existence.

However, performance in chess also relies substantially on one's experience playing the game, and the role of experience may overwhelm the role of intelligence.

Chess experts are estimated to have in excess of 10, and possibly as many as , position patterns stored in their memory; long training is necessary to acquire that amount of data.

A study of young chess players in the United Kingdom found that strong players tended to have above-average IQ scores, but, within that group, the correlation between chess skill and IQ was moderately negative, meaning that smarter children tended to achieve a lower level of chess skill.

This result was explained by a negative correlation between intelligence and practice in the elite subsample, and by practice having a higher influence on chess skill.

There are more than two thousand published chess variants, [] most of them of relatively recent origin, [] including:.

Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include David Pritchard 's encyclopedias, [] the website The Chess Variant Pages created by Hans Bodlaender with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from George Jellis to the British Chess Variants Society.

In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.

A two-player strategy board game. Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: Initial position, first row: Moves of the king.

Moves of a rook. Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen. Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. The black king is in check by the rook.

White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops. Black is not in check and has no legal move.

The result is stalemate. The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs. Square names in algebraic chess notation.

After sacrificing a piece to expose Black's king, Botvinnik played Chess in the arts. A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Chess libraries , List of chess books , and List of chess periodicals.

List of chess variants. Chess portal Strategy games portal. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today.

The spelling of ajedrez changed after Spanish lost the "sh" sound. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 October Consejo Superior de Deportes.

Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 4 October Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 8 March Li's The Genealogy of Chess ".

Archived from the original on 11 May Archived PDF from the original on 30 January Retrieved 3 March Archived from the original on 4 June The Chess Variant Pages.

Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 12 December Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 26 November Chess History and Reminiscences.

Archived from the original on 25 December Archived from the original on 1 September Archived from the original on 24 March Archived from the original on 26 October Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 4 September Archived from the original on 22 December Archived from the original on 26 December Retrieved 13 December Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 13 January Algebraic notation" in "E.

Archived from the original on 11 December Archived from the original on 5 December Archived from the original on 10 January Online at University of Oregon.

Retrieved by Internet Archive, The Second Book of the Courtier. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 7 May The Game and Playe of the Chesse.

Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 11 February Archived from the original on 22 August Archived from the original on 23 November Retrieved 22 November Hou Yifan is World Champion".

Retrieved 6 August Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 28 August International Title Regulations Qualification Commission ".

Archived from the original on 20 December Archived from the original on 7 May Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 16 January A History of Chess.

The Oxford Companion to Chess. Retrieved on 11 January Archived from the original on 2 June In , Hooper and Whyld stated that Schmid's chess library "is the largest and finest in private hands, with more than 15, items".

In , Susan Polgar stated that Schmid "has over 20, chess books". Archived from the original on 10 February Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam states that Schmid "boasts to have amassed 50, chess books.

The title of the article refers to David DeLucia's collection, not Schmid's. Archived from the original on 29 June Archived 6 December at the Wayback Machine.

Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 13 June University of Southampton and King's College Cambridge.

Archived from the original on 9 May Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. Philosophical Magazine , Ser. Available online at " computerhistory.

Archived from the original PDF on 15 March Retrieved 30 November The Week in Chess. Archived from the original on 30 September The New York Times.

Cited from Eichhorn, Christoph: Der Beginn der Formalen Spieltheorie: Zermelo , Uni-Muenchen. Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on 7 June Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Combinatorial Game Theory in Chess Endgames".

Archived from the original PDF on 12 May Retrieved 21 March Archived PDF from the original on 18 July Archived PDF from the original on 8 August A study of chess players.

Planning abilities and chess: A comparison of chess and non-chess players on the Tower of London. British Journal of Psychology, 97, — Archived PDF from the original on 22 March The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.

For competitions starting before 1 July ". Archived from the original on 23 August Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 20 April A; Joel David Hamkins New Rules for Classic Games.

The form of chess most people know—which is sometimes referred to as Western chess, orthodox chess, or orthochess—is itself just one of many that have been played throughout history.

University of Pennsylvania Press. Dat maakt se to en flinke Figur, de licht överall hinkummt. Se kann dorbi aber nich över annere Figuren springen.

As all de annern Figuren slaagt se en Figur vun den Gegensmann wenn se sik op dat Feld vun disse Figur stellt. Blangen den Toorn höört de Daam to de Swoorfiguren.

Se hett en Weert vun 9 Buurneenheiten , dat is meist so veel as twee Toorns. Denn warrt de egene Daam angrepen un se mutt sik trüchtrecken un een hett bloots Töög verloren.

Apene Lienen oder Diagonalen sünd dorför goot to bruken. In de Literatur gifft dat faken en Daamopper: In de Praxis kummt dat aber nich so faken vör.

In the end, Agudat Yisrael secured nearly three times the amount of votes it had in , and increased its Knesset representation from two seats to five, while Degel HaTorah only picked up two seats.

In a speech delivered prior to the elections, Shach said that Sephardim were still not fit for leadership, [21] and aroused great anger among Sephardi voters.

Following the elections, Shach instructed Shas not to join the government, while Ovadia Yosef instructed them to join - this precipitated an open rift between the parties.

Shach then declared that Shas had removed itself from the Jewish community when it joined the wicked Around , Shach's political activity diminished, following deterioration in his health, before later ceasing altogether.

Shach was deeply opposed to Zionism , both secular and religious. He was fiercely dismissive of secular Israelis and their culture.

For example, during a speech, he lambasted secular kibbutzniks as "breeders of rabbits and pigs" who did not "know what Yom Kippur is".

In the same speech, he said that the Labor Party had cut themselves off from their Jewish past and wished to "seek a new Torah". Labor Party politician Yossi Beilin said Shach's speech had set back relations between religious and secular Israelis by decades.

In , four years after the Labor Party supported a liberalized abortion law , Shach refused to meet with Shimon Peres , since he would not even speak with a "murderer of fetuses".

In Haaretz , Shahar Ilan described him as "an ideologue" and "a zealot who repeatedly led his followers into ideological battles".

Shach never seemed concerned over the discord his harsh statements might cause, saying that, "There is no need to worry about machlokes [dispute], because if it is done for the sake of Heaven, in the end, it will endure It is no feat to be in agreement with everybody!

Shach was also critical of democracy , once referring to it as a "cancer", adding that, "Only the sacred Torah is the true democracy.

In May , following talk of a political compromise which would allow Haredim to perform national service by guarding holy places, Shach told his followers in a public statement that it is forbidden to serve in the army, and that "it is necessary to die for this".

Shach supported the withdrawal from land under Israeli control, basing it upon the Halakhic principle of Pikuach Nefesh "[the] saving [of a] life" , in which the preservation of lives takes precedence over nearly all other obligations in the Torah, including those pertaining to the sanctity of land, [33] though Shach's position was later questioned by Rabbi Shmuel Tuvia Stern, who wondered why Shach hadn't provided halachic references supporting his opinion.

Shach's often said that for true peace, it was "permitted and necessary to compromise on even half of the Land of Israel". When Rabbi Yitzchak Hutner was asked to support this position, he refused, instead stating that, "agreement to other-than-biblical borders was tantamount to denial of the entire Torah".

Shach launched a number of public attacks against the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson , from the s through Schneerson's death in He accused Schneerson's followers of false Messianism , and Schneerson of fomenting a cult of crypto-messianism around himself.

When some of Schneerson's followers proclaimed him the Messiah, Shach called for a complete boycott of Chabad, its institutions and projects by its constituents.

Pointing to a statement by Schneerson that a rebbe is "the Essence and Being [of God] clothed a body", Shach described this as nothing short of idolatry.

His followers refused to eat meat slaughtered by Lubavitch shochetim , or to recognize Chabad Hasidim as adherents of authentic Judaism.

Despite this, Shach explained that he did not hold personal animosity toward Schneerson. When the rebbe became sick, Shach prayed for his recovery by reciting chapters from the Book of Psalms , explaining: I pray for the Rebbe's recovery and simultaneously, also pray that he abandon his invalid way.

In addition to Shach's objections to certain Chabad members proclaiming Schneerson to be the Messiah, he also argued against the Chabad position on many other issues.

Schneerson, citing case law in the Shulchan Aruch , strongly opposed both peace talks with the Palestinians and relinquishing territory to them under any circumstances, while Shach supported the " land for peace " approach.

In a lengthy attack on Rav Joseph B. In the Eleventh Knesset elections of , Shach had already told his supporters to vote for Shas instead of Agudat Yisrael.

Some perceived the schism as the reemergence of the dissent between Hasidim and Mitnagdim , as Shach represented the Lithuanian Torah world, while the Gerer Rebbe was among the most important Hasidic Rebbes and represented the most significant Hasidic court in Agudat Yisrael.

However, it would not be accurate to base the entire conflict on a renewal of the historic dispute between Hasidim and Mitnagdim which began in the latter half of the eighteenth century.

Rav Adin Steinsaltz Even-Yisrael b. It is forbidden to debate with Steinsaltz, because, as a heretic, all the debates will only cause him to degenerate more.

He is not a genuine person ein tocho ke-baro , and everyone is obliged to distance themselves from him. It will generate merit for the forthcoming Day of Judgement.

In the summer of , a group of rabbis, including Elazar Shach, placed a ban on three of Steinsaltz's books. Shach wrote that Yeshiva University YU type institutions are an entirely negative phenomenon posing a threat to the very endurance of authentic Judaism.

Shach said that these modern conceptions were "an absolute disaster, causing the destruction of our Holy Torah. Even the so-called ' Touro College ' in the USA is a terrible disaster, a ' churban ha-das ' destruction of the Jewish religion Shach further writes that the success of those people who were able to achieve greatness in Torah despite their involvement in secular studies are " ma'aseh satan " the work of the satanic forces , for the existence of such role models will entice others to follow suit, only to be doomed.

In a conversation that he had with an American rabbi in the s, Shach stated, "The Americans think that I am too controversial and divisive.

But in a time when no one else is willing to speak up on behalf of our true tradition, I feel myself impelled to do so.

Shach wrote [53] that he was not at all opposed to Hasidim and Hasidism including Hasidism of Chabad from the previous generations [54] ; he said he recognized them as " yera'im " and " shlaymim " God-fearing and wholesome , and full of Torah and Mitzvos and fear of heaven.

Regarding his opposition to the present-day Chabad movement, someone mentioned to Shach that, "After years, when you go to Heaven, you will merit a warm handshake from the Vilna Gaon.

The Baal HaTanya will be the one to shake my hand! On several occasions, Shach said to his students that it pained him deep inside over the sheim ra ["bad name"] he had acquired as a "hater of Hasidim".

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